Dental Crown Placement the Most Commonly Performed Procedures by General Dentists

If you’ve ever had a cavity, chances are you’ve been to a general dentist first. Dental crown placement is one of the most common procedures performed by general Dentist in Bellaire. It usually requires several appointments – one for creating impressions, another for placement. But the process doesn’t take long once you know what to expect. In this article, you’ll learn what to expect from these common procedures.


X-rays are among the most common dental procedures. A general dentist must be qualified to order these tests, and they can also be dangerous. However, the dentist should not blindly follow guidelines. He should discuss the risks and benefits of X-rays with patients, and should not order them without a clinical examination. Moreover, X-rays should be performed only when they are necessary for the treatment.Handling Waste from a Dental Setting | Stericycle

An x-ray is a type of radiograph that shows a person’s teeth, jawbone, and gums in high-resolution. It can also reveal fractures, infections, and cysts. It can also help determine whether a tooth is fully or partially emerged. X-rays are helpful in diagnosing tumors and identifying impacted teeth.


While a variety of restorative dental procedures are available, dental fillings are among the most commonly administered. Patients visit a general dentist if they have cavities or fractured teeth. Fillings are usually made of ceramic or alloy metal and can be cosmetically pleasing. When a cavity is too extensive for a filling, veneers or crowns are used instead.

General dentists perform a variety of dental procedures, including fillings, crowns, root canals, and root canals. While the majority of dental fillings are made of composite resin, silver amalgam is still a common material used for dental fillings. Composite resin is commonly used for temporary fillings and does not hold up as well as gold or other metals.

A dentist will begin by examining the tooth. The dentist will likely perform x-rays to confirm that there is a cavity. If the tooth is cracked, the dentist will repair it by removing decayed dental tissue from the inner part. The dentist will then clean out the tooth and fill the cavity with dental filling material. In some cases, the filling material will be hardened using blue wavelength light. Once the cavity is filled, the dentist will polish the tooth and check your bite.

Root canals

A root canal is a treatment for damaged pulp in the tooth. The dentist uses a special dental drill to access the pulp chamber inside the tooth. The tooth is cleaned and disinfected, and the pulp chamber is filled with a rubber-like material. A temporary filling is placed in the tooth to protect the root canal and help prevent the presence of bacteria. The treatment usually lasts about an hour and results in a healthy, functioning tooth.

Inflammation and a raised bump on the gums are other signs that you may need root canal therapy. If you notice any of these symptoms, you should seek the assistance of a dentist as soon as possible. A root canal is one of the few ways to save a tooth and can often save it from being extracted or replaced with a bridge or partial denture. When performed by a dentist with advanced training, root canals can save a natural tooth and prevent the need for dental implants, bridges, or partial dentures.

Tooth extraction

Although oral surgeons usually perform more complex surgeries, some dentists perform simpler procedures. Tooth extractions, for instance, are usually performed by general dentists. During the procedure, the dentist will numb the area so that the patient won’t feel any pain, and they may also use a local anesthetic to numb the area around the tooth. The patient will feel minimal discomfort, but the dentist may need to cut gum tissue or remove obstructing bone to extract the tooth. While most people don’t experience any pain during the procedure, some may feel pressure against the tooth or hear cracking or grinding of bone and teeth. If you experience pain during the procedure, contact your dentist or oral surgeon immediately so that they can adjust the anesthetic dosage.

After extraction, the dentist will place gauze over the extraction site to stop the bleeding and promote blood clotting. This reduces the risk of dry socket. After 24 hours, you may experience light bleeding. However, you should refrain from smoking for a week or so. If possible, take pain medication prescribed by your dentist to reduce pain. If you do experience bleeding, try to avoid touching the extraction site for the first few days. Also, it’s important to brush your tongue regularly, as it’s a common sign of infection.

Most Popular Types Of Whey Protein Isolates

Most people who are interested in building muscle quickly and effectively turn to one of the most popular forms of whey protein on the market today; whey protein isolate. Protein isolates contain all the essential amino acids that you need to get the maximum results from your workout routines and workouts. Whey protein isolate is ideal for those who are looking for high-quality protein, as well as those who are simply looking for a more economical way to get the protein they need. Protein isolates contain all of the necessary amino acids that your body requires to repair muscles, build muscle, and heal from workouts. There is an extremely large selection of protein isolates to choose from, so take some time to look at some of the options that are available.

One of the most popular types of whey protein isolate is flavored. When you purchase protein isolates, it is very common to find flavors such as chocolate or vanilla. These flavors are a fun way to add some flavor to what can be a bland protein product. The majority of these protein isolates do come with a taste, so it is really just a matter of what you would like to add.Whey Protein: Scientific review on benefits, weight loss, side effects & more |

Another very popular type of whey protein isolate is flavored with fruit. Fruits such as strawberries and blackberries are very popular for their use in creating protein supplements. These are just a couple of the many different fruit flavors that are available, so take some time to look at some of the ones that are offered. Most companies will offer a variety of flavors that you can choose from, depending on your personal preference.

If you want something that tastes really good, then a protein powder is just what you need. Most protein isolates will have a flavor added to them, but not all of them do. If you are looking for a really good tasting protein supplement, then a vanilla whey protein isolate is something that you might want to check out. There are a number of different flavors that are available, but if you would like to skip the flavor you can also select a no-flavored protein isolate. No matter what flavor you select, protein isolates are a great way to get the protein that you need without adding the extra calories that many other protein powders will add.

One of the more popular types of protein that you will find is one that is nuttier than others. This means that it contains a nuttier type of protein that does not include any dairy. You will typically find these proteins in gourmet foods or health stores. You can also get nuttier protein by using soy protein powders. The choices are endless when you are looking at the most popular whey protein isolates.

The most popular types of whey protein isolates will be available at your local gym. If you are looking to increase your protein intake, you should definitely consider using whey protein supplements. These products are convenient and easy to use. You can easily increase your daily protein intake by taking advantage of the many different types of protein isolates that you can buy at your local store.

How to Lose Weight Fast

Learning how to lose weight fast is important for most people. Losing weight is a big part of being healthy. It’s also good for maintaining long-term health, which may prevent you from getting heart disease or diabetes. If you’re wondering how to lose weight fast, here are 5 tips that will hopefully help.

When you’re considering how to lose weight fast, it’s important to remember that you’re not trying to starve yourself to death; in fact, most diets don’t work that way, and you should always have healthy foods and snacks to help you stay full. The idea is to create a balanced diet so that you avoid gaining weight and starving yourself. In order to do that, you need to learn about portion control, exercise, and diet food, among other things.

First, make sure you learn about portion control. Most crash diets don’t work by changing your eating habits at all. Instead, they’re designed to “crash” your metabolism in order to make you feel hungry. If you want to learn how to lose weight fast, this is never a good idea. Instead, use some of these tips:

* Stay away from simple carbohydrates. This means simple sugars and processed carbohydrates, including those found in snacks and soda. These kinds of carbohydrates will make you feel fuller and lead to weight gain, even when you’re not eating. Instead, choose complex carbohydrates, which are found in whole foods, fruits, and vegetables, instead.

* Learn how to keep track of your food intake. Weight loss dieting requires you to keep track of what you eat. You can do this by using a nutrition log, which helps you record how many calories you’re eating and how many grams of the right kinds of carbs, protein, and fat you have each day. This allows you to make smart choices about how to best target your weight loss goals.

* Make sure you stay away from sugary drinks and snacks. Sugary drinks and snacks are full of empty calories that can keep you from burning calories when you’re dieting. Instead, opt for water, milk, and fruit juices, plus nuts, grains, and seeds. Protein-rich foods, including fish, chicken, meat, eggs, and beans, as well as lean meats and poultry can also help you shed pounds while dieting.

* Don’t forget healthy carbs. Carbohydrates provide the body with fuel and are the main source of glucose, which is essential for energy. Keeping your intake of carbohydrates up doesn’t necessarily mean you have to eat more calories; in fact, it’s better to eat less than you think you need. If you add more carbs to your diet, however, you’ll likely feel tired and lethargic and may want to pop into the store-to-go coffee shop for a sugar boost.

Eating the right foods when you’re dieting is the first step toward weight loss. Whether you choose to use fasting or healthy dieting supplements, be sure you pick foods you can identify with and enjoy. Fasting for weight loss isn’t an easy task but it does work if you keep it up. It’s worth the effort because you’ll look and feel healthier. Even if you lose a bit of weight at the start, remember that your goal is to keep it off forever.

Cosmetic treatment with Botox and skincare therapy treatments

Skin care products are available in different forms. Skin care therapy is the collection of procedures that help the skin maintain its youthful look, maintain skin’s elasticity and prevent skin disorders from occurring. They consist of proper use of emollient and anti-aging lotions, nutrition, avoidance of too much sun exposure as well as proper skin care. Skin care treatments should be undertaken on a regular basis to keep the skin supple, youthful and for all Botox baytown treatment. These treatments will help you to enjoy beautiful skin for a long period of time. It will also protect the body from the harmful effects of sun damage and other environmental irritants. You need to consider all these aspects while buying the best skin care products.

Skin care products that you should use must include only the best moisturizers. It is important to keep your skin moisturized, without any kind of artificial ingredients. Skin care therapy also includes the use of creams that contain peptides derivatives. These kinds of creams help to remove dead cells from the skin and make it soft and smooth. It also helps the skin to maintain a normal level of moisture. In addition to this, these creams help to prevent wrinkles, acne scars and stretch marks. They also make the skin look younger and smoother.


Skin care treatment also includes the use of skin lightening products that help to lighten the overall appearance of the skin and improve its elasticity. They also help to get rid of dark spots and age spots. The use of these products ensures that the skin looks glowing and beautiful. The use of skin lightening products ensures that your skin looks flawless and radiant.

Cosmetic treatment with Botox and skincare therapy treatments

Skin care products are available in different forms. Skin care therapy is the collection of procedures that help the skin maintain its youthful look, maintain skin’s elasticity and prevent skin disorders from occurring. They consist of proper use of emollient and anti-aging lotions, nutrition, avoidance of too much sun exposure as well as proper skin care. Skin care treatments should be undertaken on a regular basis to keep the skin supple, youthful and for all Botox baytown treatment. These treatments will help you to enjoy beautiful skin for a long period of time. It will also protect the body from the harmful effects of sun damage and other environmental irritants. You need to consider all these aspects while buying the best skin care products.

Skin care products that you should use must include only the best moisturizers. It is important to keep your skin moisturized, without any kind of artificial ingredients. Skin care therapy also includes the use of creams that contain peptides derivatives. These kinds of creams help to remove dead cells from the skin and make it soft and smooth. It also helps the skin to maintain a normal level of moisture. In addition to this, these creams help to prevent wrinkles, acne scars and stretch marks. They also make the skin look younger and smoother.


Skin care treatment also includes the use of skin lightening products that help to lighten the overall appearance of the skin and improve its elasticity. They also help to get rid of dark spots and age spots. The use of these products ensures that the skin looks glowing and beautiful. The use of skin lightening products ensures that your skin looks flawless and radiant.

Clitoral Stimulator – Buy stimulating vibrators for women.

Clitoral stimulators are female vibrators designed specifically to stimulate a woman’s clitoris for her sexual climax and pleasure. In this article, I’m going to give you a detailed description about how these vibrators work, what are the different types of clitoral stimulators and which one I personally use. After reading this, you should have a much better idea of which clitoral stimulators you should consider purchasing for your own enjoyment. By the time you’re done reading, I’m sure you’ll be ready to buy your very own Clitoral Stimulator.


Clitoral Stimulators work by providing clitoral stimulation through vibration. This is achieved by using a small tube called a wand. The clitoris is located in the front wall of a woman’s vagina, right between the vagina and urethra. This is the most sensitive part of a woman’s body, so it’s important that you use this spot for clitoral stimulation. There are many clitoral stimulators on the market, and each one comes with a small wand and a remote control. When you press the button on the remote, a small amount of vibration is delivered into the vagina, as well as through the clitoris. These vibrations last anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes, depending on how you use your clitoral stimulators.

As far as different types of clitoral stimulators are concerned, there are several different options. Some women love the sensation of their clitoris rubbing against the tip of their penis. Other women like the sensation of an extremely intense orgasm. Most women enjoy both types of stimulation, so it’s up to you. The most popular clitoral stimulators are the Hitachi Magic Wand and the G-spotter. However, there are a lot more clitoral stimulators on the market than these two. These are just a couple of the clitoral stimulators that I personally

Trend sport with side effects

Yoga is trendy and no one doubts its positive effects on the body and mind. But be careful: if you get it wrong, you risk injury.

Even if yoga now has a certain lifestyle flair and some may only start doing it because it “somehow feels good” or because a course is offered in the gym: Most people come into contact with it for health reasons. Some people are overworked, exhausted or sleep poorly and hope that yoga will primarily relax. Another might suffer from back pain , tension , circulatory problems or joint problems – and would like to see an improvement in his situation, a healthier, stronger, and more healthy body.

Yoga can do you all good. Yoga relaxes muscles, strengthens and tones them. It stimulates the metabolism, acts on the nervous system and through it on the body. Blood values ​​can improve, and regular practice even has a positive effect on the immune system, studies have shown. And all without side effects? Only if used correctly. “Similar to drugs, the dose makes the poison,” says Prof. Ingo Froböse from the German Sport University Cologne. “Yoga is very helpful, but under two conditions: You need a certain body awareness, that only develops over time, and a good teacher.”

Finding it can be a challenge. Not because there are so few, but because there are so many yoga teachers. The Association of Yoga Teachers in Germany (BDY) estimates that at least three million Germans practice yoga regularly in Germany. With the increasing demand, so has the offer in recent years – the number of teachers who offer yoga in Germany has increased fivefold in the last 20 years and is more than 10,000 according to the BDY. The variety of styles alone is confusing. Ashtanga, Bikram, Kundalini, Iyengar or power yoga: who knows what is behind which name, let alone which type they like best?

Dangerous self-study

If you are serious about it, you will not be able to avoid testing a few schools and styles at the beginning until you have found the right one for you. Or the right teacher, because it doesn’t work without him. Experts strongly advise against learning only from books or DVDs – even book authors if they are serious. The risk of injuring yourself in the process is very high – for various reasons.

“Most people are stiff in certain parts of the body and overmobile in others,” says Marina Pagel, who runs an Iyengar studio with her partner in Hamburg. The body usually compensates for this. Yoga is about recognizing these weak points and working on them. “Especially at the beginning, many people don’t have a pronounced body awareness,” says the Iyengar teacher, who has been practicing yoga for around 20 years. It’s like with small children who are just learning to walk: If you don’t pay attention to what they’re doing, they could fall or their fingers jammed. “Many yoga students are similar. If they were not given instructions, they would be injured.”

In the best case scenario, nothing happens if you adopt the wrong posture. However, with the corresponding previous damage or with constant repetition, it can have unpleasant consequences. Muscle strains or tendon irritation, ligament stretching, blockages of the small vertebral joints are possible. Cartilage or intervertebral discs can react sensitively to long-term incorrect loading.

“Some postures are also very demanding on the body and are problematic in terms of cardiovascular regulation, for example,” says Froböse. “If untrained people suddenly go into a headstand, the work of the heart can increase significantly, which not everyone can tolerate well.” In any case, it is advisable to consult a doctor from the age of 35 before starting a new sport as a couch potato. That being said, beginners shouldn’t do a headstand anyway – such exercises are reserved for advanced users. In open courses, a good teacher can therefore always assess the level of performance of his students and will not suddenly confront newcomers with exercises that are too difficult and therefore dangerous, but rather prepare them for them.


Mindfulness with oneself, listening is a central point in yoga. “It’s not about just learning certain movements or exercises, but about learning to move,” says sports scientist Froböse. What is meant is: to feel the limits of stress, to develop a sensitivity for one’s own body and not to ask too much or too little of the body – a certain stimulus threshold should be reached if something is to change. Just don’t overdo it.

In the beginning, the exercises should therefore not be too demanding. As with any sport, the body needs a certain time to adapt to the new load and to tolerate more. “Our structures, i.e. the ligaments, tendons and joints, have a different metabolism, which means that they react differently to new stresses,” explains Froböse. Muscles react the fastest, around four weeks. Ligaments and tendons take longer, about three months. Only then can you expect more from the body, increase the load.

False ambition and the body’s own weak points

False ambition is therefore also problematic, for example when someone absolutely wants to master a lotus position or a headstand without the body having the necessary prerequisites for this, i.e. without the necessary strength or flexibility to be able to perform this exercise correctly. Something like that damages the body in the long term. To stay with the example: a lotus position – that cross-legged position where the legs look like a knot – requires articulated hips. If you force yourself into the posture despite stiff hips, although you are not yet ready, you will eventually have problems with your knees. This can be continued at will.

In addition, every body has its own weak points. For some it is the cervical or lumbar spine, for others it is the knee joints or shoulders. The teacher must be aware of these weak points, which is why good teachers always ask new students about previous illnesses, injuries or operations. The background is as follows: Some postures (asanas) cannot be practiced with certain injuries, those affected are then given an alternative asana or, as in Iyengar yoga, practice with aids such as blocks, chairs or wall ropes particularly precisely so that the body regenerates.

To avoid injuries, you always need an external corrective, nobody can do that alone. “In Iyengar Yoga, we teachers demonstrate the posture and go in with the students together. We observe and instruct at the same time. Then we come out of the asana so that we can see the group better, and first correct verbally so that the participants are aware and can actively improve, “says Pagel. “If that is not enough, one must, where necessary, carefully touch the student where the body is not yet moving.”

Qualification is crucial

To do this, the teacher has to know what she is doing. The quality of a course therefore stands and falls with its qualification. The problem here is that there is no standardized training in Germany. Basically, every yoga teacher can call himself, regardless of whether he has acquired his knowledge in a few weekend courses or whether he has completed a three-year training in which great value is placed on in-depth knowledge of anatomy and physiology. Serious schools also require prospective teachers that they can demonstrate at least two to three years of their own practice under supervision before starting their training. This is important because you can only pass on to others what you have experienced in your own body.

Interested parties can contact the BDY. The association has established a number of criteria that a qualified teacher should meet (see box). The Iyengar Yoga Association has similarly strict requirements.

Inquiries are therefore welcome: a good teacher should be willing to provide information about his or her training in advance – if you are shy, you probably do not have the appropriate qualifications. When in doubt, he can’t teach you anything. At least nothing to alleviate serious back or joint pain.

Does Corona mean the end for fitness studios as we know them?

Lifting dumbbells, yoga or interval workouts – in Corona times, many train in their own living room or in the park. That puts gyms under pressure. Workouts are streamed without further ado, but the competition is fierce online. 

Envious looks at the biceps are rare in your own living room. Apart from that, it is quite easy to do sports at home, as many people have recently discovered – thanks to small dumbbells, yoga mats and millions of video workouts. Exercise in the fresh air also found numerous new fans when the fitness studios were closed. Which increasingly begs the question: Can the good old training in the studio survive this?

Health (DIFG) asked around 1000 fitness studio members in May, are unlikely to please operators: one in five stated that they would like to visit the fitness studio less often in the future than before the crisis – or not at all anymore. At the same time, the studio owners must compensate for the consequences of the forced Corona break. Contributions must be credited in later months, missed new memberships have an impact. The industry expects ten percent fewer members at the end of the year than at the end of the previous year. 

New start for the fitness industry

“The fitness studio has to reposition itself,” says DIFG chairman Ralph Scholz. What is needed is a mixture of stationary training, online courses for at home and, ideally, offers for outside. The challenge will be “to squeeze that into a membership fee”.

It would be a little easier for those who already relied on unusual membership models before the crisis . Apps such as ClassPass or Urban Sports Club give their members a large selection of different sports offers for a fixed monthly fee: Whether swimming pool, yoga studio, pumps or dance course – the studios receive a certain amount from the app provider, depending on the offer the customer has about the fitness App uses.

These companies quickly switched to online operations when the crisis hit. They offered the studios to stream their courses and continue to allow participation through the app. Although the studios have now reopened, Urban Sports Club co-founder Moritz Kreppel is sure: “The online offers are there to stay. A combination of online and offline makes perfect sense. The flexibility to be able to use both, is extremely important. ” For some it is important to have a tea with the trainer or participants after the yoga class and in other cases to be able to participate quickly and flexibly at home.

The competition is fierce on the internet

On the Internet, however, the live streamed courses from the studio around the corner compete with numerous pre-produced fitness videos from Youtubers, bloggers or larger companies. Kreppel from the Urban Sports Club does not want to rule out on-demand content for the future either. It will be difficult for the small, owner-operated gym to keep up, even if it tries to mix it up online and offline. Ralph Scholz assumes that new service providers will emerge who will help operators in the process.

“Fitness studios will have to fight to win back their customer base,” confirms sports scientist Susanne Tittlbach from the University of Bayreuth. The current situation, in which distance and hygiene rules have to be complied with, makes this increasingly difficult.

According to Tittlbach, researchers have found that people were on average less active in sports at the height of the Corona crisis. However, there was a growing gap: people who were already active in sports became even more sporty, while less active people became even more inactive. For the latter, the course at a fixed time at a fixed location, perhaps even in a group, should continue to be helpful in overcoming the famous weaker self.

Measuring your pulse by hand – what you should pay attention to and what the values ​​mean

Measuring your own pulse regularly is important and useful. Experts say that too. Instead of an expensive heart rate monitor, a little sure instinct is enough. Read here how you can quickly feel your pulse and determine it correctly – and what conclusions can be drawn from the values.

Every time our heart muscle contracts and in doing so pumps blood through the body’s arteries, it creates a noticeable and tangible pressure wave that continues through the entire bloodstream into the capillaries. That’s the  pulse . The arterial pulse can be easily felt at various points in the body. The best place where a large artery – as close as possible under the skin – runs. Measured regularly and correctly – and interpreted by a doctor, it is a reliable parameter for our physical condition. Important: measuring your heart rate doesn’t have to be a science.

Measuring your heart rate manually – where does it work best?

As already mentioned, different parts of the body are suitable for determining the pulse without technical aids such as pulse monitors or EKG. “The pulse is usually measured on the radial artery (editor’s note: on the inside of the wrist below the thumb),” advises Professor Dr. Martin Scherer , Director of the Institute for General Practice at the University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf. Other points where the arterial pulse can be felt well are:

  • Carotid artery
  • Armpit (axillary artery)
  • Groin (femoral artery)
  • Popliteal artery
  • behind the inner ankle of the foot (arteria tibialis posterior)
  • on the middle of the foot (arteria dorsalis pedis)
Functional training: A woman and a man doing functional training in a gym


Functional training: why the full-body workout is more than a fitness trend

Measuring your pulse on your wrist – that’s how it works

To measure the pulse on the wrist, you need your fingers and either a watch with a seconds display or a smartphone. First, feel with the fingertips of two or three fingers – ideally: index and middle fingers, possibly also ring fingers – until you can feel the pumping vein. Depending on the disposition, this may require more or less pressure. Play around a little to find out at which pressure point you feel the pressure wave most clearly. Important: A grip that is too tight can squeeze the vein so that you can no longer feel the pulse. 

Even the thumb won’t get you anywhere when measuring the arterial pulse. He himself has a strong pulse, which is superimposed on the wrist and does not allow any reliable result. The same applies to measuring the pulse on the carotid artery. Here, too, you can feel the blood pressure wave best and most reliably with your index and middle fingers. If you want to document your pulse over a longer period of time, you should always measure on the same artery.

How long do you measure your heart rate?

Ideally, start the stopwatch and count each pulse for a minute. If this is too strenuous for you, you can shorten the whole thing to 30 seconds and double the calculated value. It becomes a little less precise if you shorten the measurement time further. With a ten-second interval, a sensed and counted pulse can more or less result in six beats. If you want to know exactly, you should repeat the measurement three times and calculate the mean value from the results. 

When to measure your pulse?

In order to obtain comparable values, you should always measure your pulse at around the same time of day, if possible. We recommend the time in the morning – immediately after waking up, but before getting up or breakfast – and preferably in a lying position. Take a few minutes and take a few deep breaths. The value that you determine in bed in the morning is also referred to in medicine as the resting pulse or resting heart rate. It depends on various biometric and physiological factors.

The average values ​​apply to:

  • Competitive athletes: approx. 40 beats / minute
  • Recreational athletes: 60-70 beats / minute
  • Teenagers: about 80 beats / minute
  • Untrained adults: approx. 80 beats / minute
  • Elementary school students: approx. 85 beats / minute
  • Children (4-5 years): approx. 100 beats / minute
  • Infant: approx. 130 beats / minute.

Which pulse is normal?

First of all, one should know that even a healthy heart does not beat like clockwork. For a “normal” pulse rate, doctors give a corridor of 60 to 90 beats per minute. Broken down to the ten-second interval already mentioned, this corresponds to between ten and 15 beats per ten seconds. These values ​​correspond to the heart rate in the resting state – commonly – as already described – also known as the resting heart rate. This value depends on various factors – including age, gender, height, weight and the level of training. For example, people who do sports regularly (preferably endurance sports) usually have a measurably lower resting heart rate than the so-called couch potatoes. The reason is simple. A trained heart muscle is significantly more efficient, which is particularly noticeable in the better oxygen uptake. The heart pumps the same amount of blood around the body with fewer contractions. 

Measuring a manual pulse: why actually?

Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common cardiac arrhythmias in Germany. However, some sufferers do not even notice for a long time that their heart is beating irregularly. This is dangerous because atrial fibrillation is a common cause of strokes. And this is exactly where the chance of manual pulse measurement lies. “For patients with undetected atrial fibrillation […] this can be a method to detect the irregular heartbeat and start treatment,” says Professor Dr. Clipper. Checking the heart rate can also be helpful in the case of impending infections. As a rule of thumb for adults, the doctor formulates: “At rest, the heart rate should not exceed 100 beats per minute,” says Scherer. It is also a good tool 

Heart attack: high pulse at rest, higher risk 

A study by the German Cardiac Society (DGK) in 2015 suggested that the (resting) heart rate in middle-aged people (and without known cardiovascular disease) is an independent risk marker for heart attacks and all-round mortality. Accordingly, the risk of a heart attack in subjects with a resting heart rate of more than 70 beats per minute was almost 90 percent higher than in subjects whose heart beats less than 70 times per minute at rest. It can therefore make sense to check your own pulse regularly and, if in doubt, to see your doctor.

Additives in food: recognize unhealthy things, eat better

What’s in food isn’t always on the label: manufacturers don’t have to name everything they use. And what they say is often difficult to understand. An instruction manual.

Is a strawberry yogurt a yogurt full of strawberries? Limited. It depends on the details: For example, a cup with “strawberry yoghurt” written on it only has to contain nine grams of real fruit if the entire content is 150 grams. That is about half a strawberry. If the packaging speaks of a “yoghurt with fruit preparation”, less than six grams are sufficient, which corresponds to a third of a berry. And manufacturers can skimp even more with a “strawberry-flavored yoghurt”.

And the taste ? It almost certainly has little to do with the original fruit. Strawberries, for example, lose their aroma during industrial processing and only taste bland. This is also the case with many other original ingredients. That is why many manufacturers help with substitutes from the laboratory and, depending on the product, add other chemical helpers, such as flavors, preservatives , thickeners and colorings . Other substances are also used in savory products, such as flavor enhancers .

There are 316 additives behind the E numbers

According to the Food Labeling Ordinance, so-called additives must be listed on the list of ingredients for packaged products. These substances thicken, acidify, make them longer lasting or larger, they color or enhance the taste.

There are currently 316 substances approved as food additives in the European Union. However, not each of these E numbers stands for its own active ingredient. Many simply indicate different variants of a substance.

Not toxic, but controversial: the additive amaranth

Additives must be mentioned on the packaging either with their chemical name or their E number. The “E” stands for Europe, the numbers behind it describe the substances from E 100 (for the turmeric color curcumin) to E 1520 (for the solvent propylene glycol). In principle, the substances are not harmful , they are not poisonous and in the concentrations used are not harmful to health.

Nevertheless, they are controversial. Some are suspected of causing diarrhea in high doses or triggering allergies or pseudoallergies in sensitive people . The consumer advice centers see around 50 additives as being dangerous, especially for people with allergies or asthma. They advise against certain substances, such as the additive amaranth (E 123), an artificially produced red coloring agent that is permitted in some spirits. He is suspected of having cancer.

What “natural” flavor means

In the case of additives, consumers can still look up the name. When it comes to the taste of foods, they are delivered to the manufacturer in good faith: Around 2700 different flavorings can be used in the EU without specifying the substance. The blanket note “Aroma” is sufficient on the packaging, occasionally supplemented by the melodious addition “natural”. The terms “nature-identical” or “artificial” have not been used since January 20, 2011 according to the EU Flavor Regulation passed in 2008.

This distinction between natural and nature-identical was only a question of the raw materials anyway – both came from the laboratory: the so-called natural ones come from microbes, plants or animals. But that can – even with strawberry yoghurt – be completely different from the ones they ultimately taste like.

Fruit aromas can be obtained from molds or, in the case of strawberries, from certain woods. The term “natural” only means that the raw material comes from natural products. Artificial flavors are chemical copies of a natural taste.

And there is one more thing to consider: the components in the aroma that are responsible for the taste make up around ten to 20 percent, according to the Hamburg consumer advice center. They may also contain flavors, fillers, solvents, flavor enhancers or preservatives . Since the ingredients of the flavors do not have to be labeled, some manufacturers trick and hide unpopular additives such as preservatives or flavor enhancers. You do not have to indicate this in the list of ingredients.

Technical auxiliaries remain unnamed

Technical auxiliaries such as enzymes that are used for clarifying, separating or decolorizing during production are also not subject to labeling. In principle, they are removed after they have served their purpose. Leftovers can still get into the finished food.

For some products, no lists of ingredients are required at all, for example for wine or schnapps. Goods sold unpackaged may also go over the counter without further information, for example cheese from the fresh food counter and meat and sausage at the butcher’s. “Only certain additives have to be on a sign with their class name – without naming the additive itself,” says Armin Valet from the Hamburg Consumer Center. “An example: For a sausage from the service counter with sodium monoglutamate, the label ‘with flavor enhancer ‘ is sufficient.”

When genetic engineering is labeled

Food, ingredients or additives from genetically modified organisms must be labeled as soon as their content in a product or ingredient exceeds 0.9 percent. It does not matter whether the genetic modification can be detected in the end product or not. Examples are oil from genetically modified rapeseed or lecithin from genetically modified soybeans.

Meat, eggs or dairy products from animals that have been fed genetically modified plants, on the other hand, do not have to bear any reference to genetic engineering. The same applies to additives that are produced with the help of genetically modified microorganisms, for example the sweetener aspartame . The manufacturer does not have to declare such substances if no microbial components are left in the food, for example in chewing gum.

The information is vital for allergy sufferers

In the EU, ingredients that trigger allergies particularly often have had to be labeled since 2005 . This regulation initially applied to packaged goods, but has now also applied to bulk goods. Twelve product groups are affected. They are responsible for around 90 percent of allergies and intolerances : cereals containing gluten , crustaceans, eggs, fish, peanuts, soy, milk (milk protein, lactose), nuts, celery, mustard, sesame as well as sulfur dioxide and sulfites. From the end of 2008, lupins and molluscs such as snails must also be on the package.

Compound ingredients – such as a so-called fruit preparation in yoghurt – have had to be listed with all their individual components for several years, also a step forward for all hypersensitive people.

Here, however, there are again exceptions: for herbs and spice mixtures, jams, cocoa and chocolate products, fruit juices and fruit nectars or iodized salt, the legislature does not want to know exactly to this day – if these mixtures make up less than two percent in the food and none of the just mentioned Allergens are included.

Complicated lists

However, what helps allergy sufferers and well-informed skeptics can also confuse the mass of consumers. After all, many a list of ingredients reads like a chemistry book. Manufacturers who mean well and voluntarily state more than they have to may achieve the opposite: the consumer no longer looks at it or is put off by products with long lists of ingredients.

The amount of cryptic labels on the package is no indication of how risky the contents are. Because not everything that sounds dangerous in technical jargon is by no means. Riboflavin, for example, is simply vitamin B2 . Alpha-tocopherol is the same as vitamin E .

Pasteurized or homogenized – what’s the difference?

A few easy-to-remember rules from the Food Labeling Ordinance can therefore be more helpful for orientation: The packaging must state how much is in it, who the manufacturer is, what the goods cost and how long they should at least remain edible.

Sometimes a processing method also has to be mentioned, for example with milk: Pasteurized means that it has been made durable through heat treatment. Homogenized means that the fat droplets contained are finely distributed thanks to technical assistance. The order of the list of ingredients is fixed: It is sorted according to the amount in the food. The largest is always at the beginning, the smallest at the end.

Manufacturers cheat on unpackaged food

Any ingredient list is only as good as the manufacturer who put it together. Often enough, there is cheating, especially with unpackaged goods. Colorants and preservatives are often kept secret, often in delicatessen salads. The food control department, which is responsible for correct labeling in Germany, repeatedly detects violations.

Sometimes it doesn’t say what should be on it, sometimes it says something that isn’t in it. For example, a few years ago the Hamburg food inspectors discovered that almost half of the products made from feta cheese were not made from sheep’s milk at all, but from cow’s milk. One provider was even bolder – and used analog cheese .

Clean labels

Particularly misleading are indications that producers use to advertise that their goods are “without preservatives “, “without flavor enhancers “, “without colorings“or” without flavorings. “In professional circles, something like this is called” clean label “, a clean label. This suggests to the consumer that he is buying a natural product – which is not the case, criticizes the Hamburg consumer organization.” Clean Label are mostly a superfluous marketing tool used by the manufacturer, “says consumer advocate Valet.” For example, some products that supposedly ‘do without preservatives’ contain acetic acid and other acidulants as ingredients. These substances also have a preservative effect. “

Another example: yeast extract is often found on the list of ingredients in products that allegedly do not contain flavor enhancers. According to the law, this is not an additive that has an E number. The industry even calls it a “natural food” that naturally contains glutamate. As with bag soups, nature is not far off: As the name suggests, the substance is made from yeast, but has little to do with the original product. In this process, the proteins are extracted from dead yeast cells – this is the extract that is used in large quantities in finished products, including organic products .

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